Saturday, August 1, 2009

iSobot Infrared Remote Protocol Hack

The iSOBOT IR protocol details are described here. I figured out all details to be able to create complete messages,even ones not originally send by the remote (some diagnostic codes and prompts).

History
iSobot is a lot of fun. It has a bunch of preprogrammed, often very funny moves. Kudos to TOMMY enginieers. I envy them their fun at work! But, all in all, iSobot is rather dummy.It does not have any sensors to be autonomous. The only sensors it posseses are microphone for voice commands and 1 axis gyro. So, it did not take much time for the people to want to hack it.

See some iSOBOT hacking links (with thanks to authors for their work):
HACKING RESOURCES
ANATHOMY
SERVOS
IR SIGNALING
TOTAL (HEADLESS) HACK
IRCONTROLLED BACKPACK

For me the IR control was the way to go, as I did not have time to do a total hack (replacing iSOBOT's brains) and the build-in stuff is fun anyway. I just wanted to add an alter-ego personality...I ended up replacing the 3 AAA batteries with a LiIon 3.7V battery (S007 from my broken Panasonic camera) and Arduino Pro Mini CPU. A CPU pin is directly connected to the iSOBOT IR receiver output (as the IR receiver device has open-collector output it was rather simple).

IR Signaling
The iSobot IR remote is using fairly simple protocol. In short, the IR is modulated with 38kHz. Each message starts with a longer IR burst of ~2.5ms, followed by actual payload bits. The bit value is coded as length of silence period between the 0.5ms IR 38KHz bursts. 1 is a 1ms silence and 0 is 0.5 ms silence. Initially I used Arduino "logic analyzer" to read the bits and create list of messages. Next I tried to find any rhyme or reason to all the codes and here is the result.

General Message Format

[HEADER][BYTE1][BYTE2]{[BYTE3]}


[HEADER]is 6 bits of:
  • [CHANNEL:1] 0 - A; 1 - B
  • [TYPE:2] 00 - 3 byte message used for arms control; 01 - 2 byte message (used for most commands;
  • [CHECKSUM:3] checksum of the entire message (see below)

So here are the 2 types of messages:
[CH:1][TYPE:2 = 00][CHECK:3][CMD1:8][CMD2:8][CMD3:8]
[CH:1][TYPE:2 = 01][CHECK:3][CMD:8][PARAM:8]
For message type 01 (2 byte) the second byte is often zero, except when used sometimes for parameters e.g. in joystick movement command (PARAM is always 0x03, do not know what this means) and for configuration command 0xD3 where the 4 lowest bits of PARAM are Lon:1,Loff:1,S:1,V:1 where L-light, V-voice, S-sound.

The Checksum

This was the toughest part to decipher. It ended up logical and simple.
First sum all the bytes (including header stored as separate byte).
Then sum up the result, 3 bits at a time and use lower 3 bit of this sum as a CHECKSUM.

So here is a C code snaplet (Arduino):


byte computeCheckSum( byte hdr, byte cmd1, byte cmd2, byte cmd3 )
{
// first sum up all bytes
byte s = hdr + cmd1 + cmd2 + cmd3;
// then sum up the result, 3 bits at a time
s = (s & 7) + ((s >> 3) & 7) + (s >> 6) & 7;
// return 3 lower bits of the sum
return s & 7;
}

Command Notes

Observations:
  • commands are interrupt-able but each expect to start from HP (home position)
  • some commands will reposition legs, while some will not so interesting hybrids can result e.g. try EAGLE for 3 seconds and then sent AIRDRUM - iSOBOT will play drums while standing on one leg (but this will not work with AIRGUITAR as it will reset legs).
video
Movement (left joystick)
FWRD 0.01.101.10110111.00000011
BWRD 0.01.110.10111000.00000011
LEFT 0.01.001.10111011.00000011
RGHT 0.01.010.10111100.00000011
FWLT 0.01.111.10111001.00000011
FWRT 0.01.000.10111010.00000011
BKRT 0.01.101.10111110.00000011
BKLT 0.01.100.10111101.00000011
STOP 0.01.101.11010111.00000000 (joystick nutral)
These are repeated when joystick is pushed. Need to try to mess with the parameters...

Arms (right joystick+front buttons)

NOIMP 1.00.010.10000100.10000000.10000000
NOIMP 1.01.000.11010110.00000000 (locked)
END 1.01.001.11010111.00000000
END 1.01.001.11010111.00000000 (locked-same as normal)

RUP 1.00.000.10000111.10000010.10000000
RDW 1.00.000.10000000.10000010.10000000
RRT 1.00.110.10000100.10000000.11110000
RLT 1.00.010.10000100.10000000.10000000
LUP 1.00.110.10000100.11110000.10000000
LDW 1.00.010.10000100.00010000.10000000
LRT 1.00.101.11101100.10000000.10000000
LLT 1.00.001.00001100.10000000.10000000
NOIMP is send when joystick is not pushed. Now, any patterns here? Why these needed 3 bytes? Perhaps they drive the servos directly...

List of Commands


#define CMD_RC 0x07
#define CMD_PM 0x08
#define CMD_SA 0x09
#define CMD_VC 0x0a
#define CMD_1P 0x13
#define CMD_2P 0x14
#define CMD_3P 0x15
#define CMD_4P 0x16
#define CMD_11P 0x17
#define CMD_12P 0x18
#define CMD_13P 0x19
#define CMD_14P 0x1a
#define CMD_21P 0x1b
#define CMD_22P 0x1c
#define CMD_23P 0x1d
#define CMD_24P 0x1e
#define CMD_31P 0x1f
#define CMD_32P 0x20
#define CMD_34P 0x21
#define CMD_1K 0x22
#define CMD_2K 0x23
#define CMD_3K 0x24
#define CMD_4K 0x25
#define CMD_11K 0x26
#define CMD_12K 0x27
#define CMD_13K 0x28
#define CMD_14K 0x29
#define CMD_31K 0x2a
#define CMD_42K 0x2b
#define CMD_21K 0x2c
#define CMD_22K 0x2d
#define CMD_23K 0x2e
#define CMD_24K 0x2f
#define CMD_31K 0x30
#define CMD_34K 0x31
#define CMD_3G 0x32
#define CMD_2G 0x33
#define CMD_3G 0x34
#define CMD_4G 0x35
#define CMD_11G 0x36
#define CMD_12G 0x37
#define CMD_13G 0x38
#define CMD_14G 0x39
#define CMD_21G 0x3a
#define CMD_22G 0x3b
#define CMD_23G 0x3c
#define CMD_A 0x3d
#define CMD_B 0x3e
#define CMD_1A 0x3f
#define CMD_2A 0x40
#define CMD_2A 0x41
#define CMD_3A 0x42
#define CMD_4A 0x43
#define CMD_11A 0x44
#define CMD_12A 0x45
#define CMD_13A 0x46
#define CMD_14A 0x47
#define CMD_21A 0x48
#define CMD_22A 0x49
#define CMD_23A 0x4a
#define CMD_32A 0x4b
#define CMD_31A 0x4c
#define CMD_32A 0x4d
#define CMD_41A 0x4e
#define CMD_42A 0x4f
#define CMD_43A 0x50
#define CMD_111A 0x51
#define CMD_222A 0x52
#define CMD_333A 0x53
#define CMD_11B 0x54
#define CMD_12B 0x55
#define CMD_13B 0x56
#define CMD_14B 0x57
#define CMD_31B 0x58
#define CMD_22B 0x59
#define CMD_23B 0x5a
#define CMD_24B 0x5b
#define CMD_31B 0x5c
#define CMD_32B 0x5d
#define CMD_33B 0x5e
#define CMD_234B 0x5f
#define CMD_41B 0x60
#define CMD_42B 0x61
#define CMD_43B 0x62
#define CMD_44B 0x63
#define CMD_112A 0x65
#define CMD_113A 0x66
#define CMD_114A 0x67
#define CMD_124A 0x6b
#define CMD_131A 0x6c
#define CMD_132A 0x6d
#define CMD_113B 0x6e
#define CMD_114B 0x6f
#define CMD_121B 0x70
#define CMD_122B 0x71
#define CMD_123B 0x72
#define CMD_124B 0x73
#define CMD_131B 0x74
#define CMD_132B 0x75
#define CMD_133B 0x76
#define CMD_134B 0x77
#define CMD_141A 0x78
#define CMD_143A 0x79
#define CMD_144A 0x7b
#define CMD_211B 0x7c
#define CMD_212B 0x7d
#define CMD_213B 0x7e
#define CMD_221B 0x80
#define CMD_222B 0x81
#define CMD_223B 0x82
#define CMD_224B 0x83
#define CMD_232B 0x85
#define CMD_233B 0x86
#define CMD_241B 0x88
#define CMD_242B 0x89
#define CMD_A 0x8a
#define CMD_B 0x8b
#define CMD_AB 0x8c
#define CMD_AAA 0x8d
#define CMD_BBB 0x8e
#define CMD_BAB 0x8f
#define CMD_ABB 0x95
#define CMD_BBA 0x97
#define CMD_ABA 0x98
#define CMD_ABAB 0x99
#define CMD_AAAA 0x9a
#define CMD_FWRD 0xb7
#define CMD_BWRD 0xb8
#define CMD_FWLT 0xb9
#define CMD_FWRT 0xba
#define CMD_LEFT 0xbb
#define CMD_RGHT 0xbc
#define CMD_BKLT 0xbd
#define CMD_BKRT 0xbe
#define CMD_411A 0xc7
#define CMD_412A 0xc8
#define CMD_413A 0xc9
#define CMD_444B 0xca
#define CMD_444A 0xcb
#define CMD_LVSoff 0xd3
#define CMD_HP 0xd5
#define CMD_NOIMP 0xd6
#define CMD_END 0xd7
#define MSG_NOIMP 0x848080
#define MSG_NOIMP 0x848080
#define MSG_RUP 0x878280
#define MSG_RDW 0x808280
#define MSG_RRT 0x8480f0
#define MSG_RLT 0x848080
#define MSG_LUP 0x84f080
#define MSG_LDW 0x841080
#define MSG_LRT 0xec8080
#define MSG_LLT 0x0c8080


What NEXT?

Now that we can sent any command it is time to try sending new code. I did try to sent CMDs 0-7 and they produce the initial iSOBOT moves (initial grittings, no input frustration, greetings etc). Also, the it would be great to explore the parameters and longer-type command.

Command codes that I could not generate with the iSOBOT remote:

Dec Hex
0-6 00-06
11-11 0B-0B
13-18 0D-12
100-100 64-64
104-106 68-6A
122-122 7A-7A
127-127 7F-7F
144-148 90-94
150-150 96-96
155-182 9B-B6
191-198 BF-C6
204-210 CC-D2
212-212 D4-D4
216-235 D8-EB


Wait for more posts about code: interrupt-based IR receiver, iSOBOT boobs-job (front backpack).

Just exercised these "bonus" codes and got:

#define CMD_TURNON 0x01
#define CMD_ACTIVATED 0x02
#define CMD_READY 0x03
#define CMD_RC_CONFIRM 0x04
#define CMD_RC_PROMPT 0x05
#define CMD_MODE_PROMPT 0x06
#define CMD_IDLE_PROMPT 0x0B // 0x0C,0x0D,0x0E all the same
#define CMD_HUMMING_PROMPT 0x0F
#define CMD_COUGH_PROMPT 0x10
#define CMD_TIRED_PROMPT 0x11
#define CMD_SLEEP_PROMPT 0x12
#define CMD_FART 0x40 // 2A
#define CMD_SHOOT_RIGHT 0x64
#define CMD_SHOOT_RIGHT2 0x68
#define CMD_SHOOT2 0x69
#define CMD_BEEP 0x6a
#define CMD_BANZAI 0x7F
#define CMD_CHEER1 0x90
#define CMD_CHEER2 0x91
#define CMD_DOG 0x92
#define CMD_CAR 0x93
#define CMD_EAGLE 0x94
#define CMD_ROOSTER 0x95
#define CMD_GORILLA 0x96
#define CMD_LOOKOUT 0xA1
#define CMD_STORY1 0xA2 // knight and princess
#define CMD_STORY2 0xA3 // ready to start day
#define CMD_GREET1 0xA4 // good morning
#define CMD_GREET2 0xA5 // do somthing fun
#define CMD_POOP 0xA6 // poops his pants
#define CMD_GOOUT 0xA7 // ready to go out dancing
#define CMD_HIBUDDY 0xA8 // .. bring a round of drinks
#define CMD_INTRODUCTION 0xA9
#define CMD_ATYOURSERVICE 0xAA
#define CMD_SMELLS 0xAB
#define CMD_THATWASCLOSE 0xAC
#define CMD_WANNAPICEOFME 0xAD
#define CMD_RUNFORYOURLIFE 0xAE
#define CMD_TONEWTODIE 0xAF
// 0xB0 - nothing?
#define CMD_SWANLAKE 0xB1
#define CMD_DISCO 0xB2
#define CMD_MOONWALK 0xB3
#define CMD_REPEAT_PROMPT 0xB4
#define CMD_REPEAT_PROMPT2 0xB5
#define CMD_REPEAT_PROMPT3 0xB6
// 0xB7-0xC4 single steps in different directions
#define CMD_HEADSMASH 0xC5
#define CMD_HEADHIT 0xC6
// 0xCC-0xD2 - unknown (use param?)
// after exercising one of these I am getting only beeps instead of voice/sounds
// (looks like a tool to synchronize sound with moves)
#define CMD_HIBEEP 0xD3
// 0xD4 - unknown (use param?)
#define CMD_BEND_BACK 0xD8 // same untill 0xDB
#define CMD_SQUAT 0xDB // also 0xDC
#define CMD_BEND_FORWARD 0xDD
#define CMD_HEAD_LEFT_60 0xDE
#define CMD_HEAD_LEFT_45 0xDF
#define CMD_HEAD_LEFT_30 0xE0
#define CMD_HEAD_RIGHT_30 0xE1
#define CMD_HEAD_RIGHT_45 0xE2
#define CMD_HEAD_RIGHT_60 0xE3
// seems identical to A & B getups
#define CMD_GETUP_BELLY 0xE4
#define CMD_GETUP_BACK 0xE5
// E6 unknown
#define CMD_HEAD_SCAN_AND_BEND 0xE7
#define CMD_ARM_TEST 0xE8
#define CMD_FALL_AND_LEG_TEST 0xE9
#define CMD_THANKYOUSIR 0xEA
#define CMD_ILOVEYOU_SHORT 0xEB
#define CMD_3BEEPS 0xEC
#define CMD_FALL_DEAD 0xED
#define CMD_3BEEPS_AND_SLIDE 0xEE
// EF-FF unknown



3 comments:

jessika.mk said...

Hi Friend,! Congratulations for this nice looking blog. In this post everything about Web Development. I am also interested in latest news, Great idea you know about company background. Increasing your web traffic and page views Add, add your website in www.directory.itsolusenz.com/

Hugobiwan Zolnir said...

This is great ! But as mentionned on arduino forum, no way to make it work with a 16mhz arduino... Any suggestion would be very much appreciated !

MichWorks said...

code in https://github.com/michkrom/arduino.git